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alone 5G specifically

As we edge closer to 5G deployments, the war for 5G talent required for building the next generation of fixed and mobile networks will intensify. If you’re looking to upskill to become a 5G ready telecoms engineer, there will never be a better time to do so.
The non stand-alone version of 5G NR exists as a way to take advantage of existing infrastructure during initial deployments of 5G technology. A stand-alone version also exists with the goal of being forward compatible for future generations of wireless standards. Stand-alone networks can co-exist with non stand-alone and operate simultaneously. An exact date for when stand-alone technology will be rolled out has not yet been set, but it is a use case that is being taken into account in the NR Phase
Aside from the efforts being made in the standardizations bodies, Verizon and Korea Telecom (KT) are looking to commercialize pre 5G technologies. Verizon is looking to deploy fixed wireless access based on the 5G Technical Forum (Verizon 5GTF or V5GTF) physical layer as early as winter 2017. V5GTF will operate at 28 GHz and be used as a way to deliver high speed internet in last mile applications, but will not cover the mobile use case. KT, on the other hand, is looking to deploy pre 5G technology for the winter Olympics being held
It’s important to note that sub-6 GHz frequencies will still play an important roll in 5G technology. Companies are looking to increase bandwidth up to five times what is currently available in LTE. The frequencies listed above represent a majority of the frequencies being considered, but is not a comprehensive list. For example, T-Mobile is planning to use spectrum around 600 MHz in the United States for 5G deployment.

While millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for the first phase of NR are better defined, there will still be a need for multiple bands, depending on region. For instance, Chinese regulatory bodies have proposed 24.75-27.5 and 37-42.5 GHz. The FCC in the US has proposed 28 GHz and 2 bands covering 37-40 GHz. And the EU has specifically stated that 28 GHz will not work and is focused on the 24-27 GHz spectrum as well as 38 and 39 GHz. Korea and Japan are also aligned around 28 GHz.
According to Mobile UK, an industry lobby group (quoted in The Guardian), the continued spate of incidents and harassment are having negative effects on maintenance and on the continued connectivity vital for remote work and school.

Telecom Companies React
In the New York Times article mentioned earlier, journalists Adam Satariano and Davey Alba report that threats against telecom employees and equipment are too widespread to ignore. BT Group, a telecom company based in London, reports at least eleven incidents of vandalism while Vodaphone reports more than fifteen incidents. The reporters explain that while these attacks incur major damage on existing telecom infrastructure, actual 5G equipment has been unaffected.

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